Burns are among the most common household injuries, especially in children. The term ‘Burns’ means more than the burning sensation associated with this injury.

Burns are characterized by severe skin damage in which many of the affected cells die. Depending on the cause and magnitude of the injury, most people can recover from burns without serious health consequences. More serious burns require immediate emergency medical care to prevent complications or death.

There are three primary severity types of Burns:

  • First Degree (mostly superficial) Burns: Redness & Painful
  • Second Degree Burns: Blistering & Thickening of the Skin
  • Third Degree Burns: Widespread thickness with a white / yellow leathery appearance, Third Degree Full Thickness Burns sometimes extend beyond the Skin into Tendons and Bones.

Professionals categorize the Burns based on their Cause and Total Burn Surface Area (TBSA)


Some common categories are:

  •   Scalding (Hot, Boiling Liquids or Oils)
  •   Chemical Burns (Acids, Alkalis, etc.)
  •   Electrical Burns (Electric Current)
  •   Thermal Burns (Fires, Explosion, Flame or Hot Surfaces)


Each of the above types of Burns can cause all three severity types of burns, depending on how hot the liquid is and how long the skin makes contact.

The TBSA (Total Burn Surface Area) is calculated as per the Lund & Browder’s Chart (Rule of Nines) and has been considered a Gold Standard:

Any Burn Injury of any magnitude warrants immediate medical attention.